The biomass module calculates the production costs of all types of primary energy biomass.

Description | Unit | A | B | |
---|---|---|---|---|

cm_1stgen_phaseout | choose if 1st generation biofuels should phase out after 2030 (vm_deltaCap=0) | x | ||

cm_bioenergymaxscen | choose bound on global pebiolc production excluding residues | x | ||

cm_biolc_tech_phaseout | Switch that allows for a full phaseout of all bioenergy technologies globally | x | ||

cm_bioprod_histlim | regional parameter to limit biomass (pebiolc.1) production to a multiple of the 2015 production | x | ||

cm_BioSupply_Adjust_EU | factor for scaling sub-EU bioenergy supply curves | x | ||

cm_emiscen | policy scenario choice | x | ||

cm_startyear | first optimized modelling time step | \(year\) | x | |

pm_costsTradePeFinancial (all_regi, char, all_enty) |
PE tradecosts (financial costs on import, export and use) | x | ||

pm_pedem_res (ttot, all_regi, all_te) |
Demand for pebiolc residues, needed for enhancement of residue potential | \(TWa\) | x | |

pm_ts (tall) |
(t_n+1 - t_n-1)/2 for a timestep t_n | x | ||

sm_EJ_2_TWa | multiplicative factor to convert from EJ to TWa | x | ||

sm_eps | small number: 1e-9 | x | ||

sm_GJ_2_TWa | multiplicative factor to convert from GJ to TWa | x | ||

vm_costFuBio (ttot, all_regi) |
fuel costs from bio energy | \(tril\$US\) | x | x |

vm_deltaCap (tall, all_regi, all_te, rlf) |
capacity additions | x | ||

vm_demPe (tall, all_regi, all_enty, all_enty, all_te) |
pe demand. | \(TWa, Uranium: Mt Ur\) | x | |

vm_fuExtr (ttot, all_regi, all_enty, rlf) |
fuel use | \(TWa\) | x | x |

vm_pebiolc_price (ttot, all_regi) |
Bioenergy price according to MAgPIE supply curves | \(T\$US/TWa\) | x | |

vm_prodSe (tall, all_regi, all_enty, all_enty, all_te) |
se production. | \(TWa\) | x | |

vm_Xport (tall, all_regi, all_enty) |
Export of traded commodity. | x |

Description | Unit | |
---|---|---|

pm_pebiolc_demandmag (tall, all_regi) |
Production of lignocellulosic purpose grown bioenergy from MAgPIE | \(TWa\) |

LimitationsThere are no known limitations.

The costs for purpose grown ligno-cellulosic biomass are the integral under the supplycurve. The supplycurves have been derived from MAgPIE 4.1

The costs for purpose grown ligno-cellulosic biomass are the integral under the supplycurve. The supplycurves have been derived from MAgPIE 4.1

**Total fuel costs for biomass**

The first part, summing over *peren2rlf30*, represents costs for
biomass with fixed prices. The second part that includes
*v30_pebiolc_costs* represents costs for biomass with continous
supply curves from MAgPIE. In coupled runs *v30_multcost* is a
cost markup factor improving the convergence by penalizing large jumps
in the demand between two coupling iterations. It converges to 1 and
therefore does not affect the outcome. The last part, containing
*pm_costsTradePeFinancial*, represents additional tradecosts
(only for purpose grown lignocellulosic biomass).

```
q30_costFuBio(ttot,regi)$(ttot.val ge cm_startyear)..
vm_costFuBio(ttot,regi)
=e= sum(peren2rlf30(enty,rlf), p30_datapebio(regi,enty,rlf,"cost",ttot) * vm_fuExtr(ttot,regi,enty,rlf))
+
$if %cm_MAgPIE_coupling% == "on" (v30_pebiolc_costs(ttot,regi) * v30_multcost(ttot,regi))
$if %cm_MAgPIE_coupling% == "off" (v30_pebiolc_costs(ttot,regi))
- p30_pebiolc_costs_emu_preloop(ttot,regi)
+
sum(peren2cont30(enty,rlf), vm_fuExtr(ttot,regi,enty,rlf) * pm_costsTradePeFinancial(regi,"use",enty));
```

**MAgPIE EMULATOR: PRICE**

This equation calculates the price for purpose grown lignocellulosic
biomass as a (linear) function of demand according to the supplycurve as
it was derived from MAgPIE. The equation is used by the shift factor
calculation in the preloop stage. In the main solve stage the price is
only used to apply the bioenergy tax. It contains optional shift and
scaling of supply curves in coupled runs.

\[\begin{multline*} vm\_pebiolc\_price(ttot,regi) = \left(v30\_priceshift(ttot,regi) + i30\_bioen\_price\_a(ttot,regi) + i30\_bioen\_price\_b(ttot,regi) \cdot \left(vm\_fuExtr(ttot,regi,"pebiolc","1") + sm\_eps\right) \right) \cdot v30\_pricemult(ttot,regi) \end{multline*}\]

**MAgPIE EMULATOR: COST**

Calculates bioenergy costs of purpose grown lignocellulosic biomass by
integrating the linear price supply curve (see above). It contains
optional shift and scaling of supply curves in coupled runs. The
equation is used both in preloop and main solve.

\[\begin{multline*} v30\_pebiolc\_costs(ttot,regi) = \left(v30\_priceshift(ttot,regi) + i30\_bioen\_price\_a(ttot,regi) +\frac{ i30\_bioen\_price\_b(ttot,regi) }{ 2 } \cdot \left(vm\_fuExtr(ttot,regi,"pebiolc","1") + sm\_eps\right) \right) \cdot v30\_pricemult(ttot,regi) \cdot vm\_fuExtr(ttot,regi,"pebiolc","1") \end{multline*}\]

**Calculate shift factor for bioenergy costs**

This applies in coupled runs only to shift the supplycurve according to
the price response of MAgPIE. The factor is computed by minimizing least
squares (*v30_shift_r2*) of price differences between actual
MAgPIE output (from coupled runs) and the supply curve (aka MAgPIE
emulator). It is solved in presolve (*s30_switch_shiftcalc* = 1)
and deactivated in main solve (*s30_switch_shiftcalc* = 0).
*pm_ts* is used as a weight factor, representing the time step
length.

\[\begin{multline*} v30\_shift\_r2 = \sum_{regi}\left( \sum_{ttot\$\left(ttot.val ge 2005 \& p30\_pebiolc\_pricemag(ttot,regi) gt 0\right)}\left( \left(\left(p30\_pebiolc\_pricemag(ttot,regi) - vm\_pebiolc\_price(ttot,regi)\right) \cdot pm\_ts(ttot)\right)^{2}\right)\right) \end{multline*}\]

**Calculate cost markup factor for coupled runs**

Improve convergence of the REMIND-MAgPIE coupling by penalizing
deviations from last coupling iteration. This applies in coupled runs
only to prevent large jumps in bioenergy demand between coupling
iterations. It penalizes deviations in the demand for purpose grown
bioenergy from the previous coupling iteration by increasing the costs
proportional to the deviation. The factor converges to 1, as the
difference between *vm_fuExtr* and *pm_pebiolc_demandmag*
vanishes when the coupling converges over iterations.

\[\begin{multline*} v30\_multcost(ttot,regi) = \left(\frac{\left(vm\_fuExtr(ttot,regi,"pebiolc","1")-pm\_pebiolc\_demandmag(ttot,regi)\right)}{ \left(pm\_pebiolc\_demandmag(ttot,regi) + 0.15\right)}\right)^{2} \cdot 0.4 + 1 \end{multline*}\]

**Limit export of biomass**

Only purpose grown lignocellulosic biomass may be exported, no
residues.

\[\begin{multline*} vm\_Xport(t,regi,"pebiolc") \leq vm\_fuExtr(t,regi,"pebiolc","1") \end{multline*}\]

\[\begin{multline*} \sum_{pe2se(enty,enty2,teBio)\$teCCS(teBio)} vm\_demPe(t,regi,enty,enty2,teBio) \leq 0.5 \cdot p30\_demPe(t,regi) \end{multline*}\]

\[\begin{multline*} v30\_BioPEProdTotal(t,regi) = \sum_{peren2rlf30(enty,rlf)}\left( vm\_fuExtr(t,regi,enty,rlf)\right) + \sum_{peren2cont30(enty,rlf)}\left( vm\_fuExtr(t,regi,enty,rlf)\right) \end{multline*}\]

\[\begin{multline*} v30\_BioPEProdTotal(t,regi) \leq cm\_bioprod\_histlim \cdot v30\_BioPEProdTotal("2015",regi) \end{multline*}\]

The costs for purpose grown ligno-cellulosic biomass are the integral under the supplycurve. The supplycurves have been derived from MAgPIE 4.1

LimitationsThere are no known limitations.

Description | Unit | A | B | |
---|---|---|---|---|

f30_bioen_price (tall, all_regi, all_LU_emi_scen, all_rcp_scen, all_charScen) |
time dependent fit coefficients for bioenergy price formula | x | ||

i30_bioen_price_a (ttot, all_regi) |
Time dependent intercept in bioenergy price formula | \(T\$US/TWa\) | x | |

i30_bioen_price_b (ttot, all_regi) |
Time dependent slope in bioenergy price formula | \(T\$US/TWa/TWa\) | x | |

p30_bio1stgen (tall, all_regi, all_enty) |
regional maximal production potential for 1st generation crops only (pebioil, pebios) | x | ||

p30_biolcProductionLookup (tall, all_regi, all_LU_emi_scen, all_rcp_scen) |
regional production of pebiolc purpose grown | x | ||

p30_biolcResidues (tall, all_regi, all_LU_emi_scen) |
regional potential for pebiolc residues | x | ||

p30_datapebio (all_regi, all_enty, rlf, charPeRe, ttot) |
Global bioenergy potential for lignocellulosic residues and 1st generation crops | \(TWa\) | x | |

p30_demPe (ttot, all_regi) |
Primary energy demand imported from gdx or previous iteration | \(TWa\) | x | |

p30_fix_costfu_bio (tall, all_regi) |
exogenous data for _costFuBio | x | x | |

p30_fix_fuelex (tall, all_regi, all_enty, rlf) |
exogenous data for _fuExtr | x | x | |

p30_fuelex_dummy (all_regi) |
Dummy for bio-energy supply per region | x | ||

p30_max_pebiolc_dummy | Dummy for bio energy supply at p30_pebiolc_price_dummy | x | ||

p30_max_pebiolc_path (all_regi, tall) |
Time path of regional maximal pebiolc production | \(TWa\) | x | |

p30_max_pebiolc_path_glob (tall) |
Time path of global maximal pebiolc production | \(TWa\) | x | |

p30_max200_path (tall) |
Time path of global maximal pebiolc production containing values for 200 EJ case | \(TWa\) | x | |

p30_maxprod_residue (ttot, all_regi) |
Maximal potential of residues enhanced by demand of biotr | \(TWa\) | x | |

p30_pebiolc_costs_emu_preloop (ttot, all_regi) |
Bioenergy costs calculated with emulator using MAgPIE demand. For shift factor calculation | \(T\$US\) | x | |

p30_pebiolc_price_dummy | Dummy for the bio-energy price to match the bioenergy bound s30_max_pebiolc | x | ||

p30_pebiolc_price_emu_preloop (ttot, all_regi) |
Bioenergy price calculated with emulator using MAgPIE demand. For shift factor calculation | \(T\$US/TWa\) | x | |

p30_pebiolc_price_emu_preloop_shifted (ttot, all_regi) |
Bioenergy price calculated with emulator using MAgPIE demand after shift factor calculation | \(T\$US/TWa\) | x | |

p30_pebiolc_pricemag (tall, all_regi) |
Prices for lignocellulosic purpose grown bioenergy from MAgPIE | \(T\$US/TWa\) | x | |

p30_pebiolc_pricmult (ttot, all_regi) |
Regional multiplication factor that sclaes emulator prices to better fit actual MAgPIE prices | \(-\) | x | |

p30_pebiolc_pricshift (ttot, all_regi) |
Regional translation factor that shifts emulator prices to better fit actual MAgPIE prices | \(-\) | x | |

q30_BioPEProdTotal (ttot, all_regi) |
Calculate total domestic PE biomass production | x | ||

q30_costAdj (ttot, all_regi) |
Improve convergence penalizing deviations from last coupling iteration | x | ||

q30_costFuBio (ttot, all_regi) |
Total costs of bioenergy production | x | ||

q30_limitProdtoHist (ttot, all_regi) |
Limit regional energy crop production to multiple of cm_bioprod_histlim times 2015 level, active if cm_bioprod_histlim >= 0 | x | ||

q30_limitTeBio (ttot, all_regi) |
Limit BECCS in policy runs relative to reference scenario | x | ||

q30_limitXpBio (ttot, all_regi) |
Only purpose grown bioenergy may be exported, no residues | x | ||

q30_pebiolc_costs (ttot, all_regi) |
MAgPIE emulator: calculates the costs of pebiolc according to MAgPIE supply curves | x | ||

q30_pebiolc_price (ttot, all_regi) |
MAgPIE emulator: calculates the price of pebiolc according to MAgPIE supply curves | x | ||

q30_priceshift | Calculates shift factor by minimizing least squares of price differences between MAgPIE output and MAgPIE emulator | x | ||

s30_D2TD | Multiplicative factor to convert from Dollar to TeraDollar | x | ||

s30_max_pebiolc | Absolute end value of bound on global pebiolc production | \(TWa\) | x | |

s30_switch_shiftcalc | Switch to activate equation for shift calculation before main solve and to deactivate it during main solve | x | ||

v30_BioPEProdTotal (ttot, all_regi) |
total domestic PE biomass production | \(unit: TWyr\) | x | |

v30_multcost (ttot, all_regi) |
Cost markup factor for deviations from demand of last coupling iteration | \(-\) | x | |

v30_pebiolc_costs (ttot, all_regi) |
Bioenergy costs according to MAgPIE supply curves | \(T\$US\) | x | |

v30_pricemult (ttot, all_regi) |
Regional multiplication factor that sclaes emulator prices to better fit actual MAgPIE prices | \(-\) | x | |

v30_priceshift (ttot, all_regi) |
Regional translation factor that shifts emulator prices to better fit actual MAgPIE prices | \(-\) | x | |

v30_shift_r2 | Least square to minimize during shift calculation | x |

description | |
---|---|

all_charScen | coefficients of the emulator formulas |

all_enty | all types of quantities |

all_LU_emi_scen | all emission baselines for CH4 and N2O land use emissions from MAgPIE |

all_rcp_scen | all possible RCP scenarios |

all_regi | all regions |

all_te | all energy technologies, including from modules |

char | characteristics of technologies |

charPeRe(char) | characteristics of renewables |

enty(all_enty) | all types of quantities |

entySe(all_enty) | secondary energy types |

in(all_in) | All inputs and outputs of the CES function |

iteration | iterator for main (Negishi/Nash) iterations |

modules | all the available modules |

pe2se(all_enty, all_enty, all_te) | map primary energy carriers to secondary |

peBio(all_enty) | biomass primary energy types |

peren2cont30(all_enty, rlf) | map biomass energy to grades with continous supplycurve |

peren2rlf30(all_enty, rlf) | map biomass energy to grades |

regi(all_regi) | all regions used in the solution process |

regi_group(ext_regi, all_regi) | region groups (regions that together corresponds to a H12 region) |

rlf | cost levels of fossil fuels |

t(ttot) | modeling time, usually starting in 2005, but later for fixed delay runs |

tall | time index |

te(all_te) | energy technologies |

teBio(all_te) | biomass energy systems technologies |

teBioPebiolc(all_te) | biomass technologies using pebiolc |

teCCS(all_te) | Technologies with CCS |

ttot(tall) | time index with spin up |

David Klein